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This gampr in Armenia may reflect the consistent breeding in the beginnings of the domestication age, where crossing with wolves was regularly practiced. Photo by Hamlik P.


pro canid


around the world

The location of the first domestication of the dog seems to change depending on the method of investigation.  However, it has become apparent that the original ancestor of all dogs was not exactly a dog, nor was it the same as any wolf living now; it was what may be called a proto-canid and lived until somewhere between 10,000-35,000 years ago.

The proto-canid has some very interesting descendants in groups of non-domesticated dogs worldwide. These non-domesticated dogs have been referred to as pariahs when in actuality, they are dogs who were never domesticated but, in some cases, acclimated to living among humans.

Some of these breeds of non-domesticated dogs are:


These breeds can live entirely without human assistance. Most ovulate once per year, live alone or in packs, and all can be domesticated.  Typical features include upright ears, almond-shaped eyes, a short coat that is most commonly golden/tan in color, a tapering muzzle, and many have a curled tail.

By mtDNA analysis, the dog species which has changed the least from the original proto-canid is the New Guinea Singing dog. These dogs are nearly extinct in the wild. They have a unique style of vocalizations and may be the most difficult to adjust to human cohabitation.

Many scientific dog domestication studies seek to prove a single point of origin. The lens through which most professors see the process is that the domestication incident of a dog happened in one location, spread to other areas; and all dogs are descended from that one incident.

Various locations have been proposed and given scientific credence, including Southeast Asia, Mesopotamia, Siberia, and Europe.

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Indian Native Dog, the InDog, working as a Livestock Guardian in India

However, when we examine the localized populations of non-domesticated dog species, such as those listed above, we see multiple spontaneous incidences of the dog-human partnership continuing even in modern times. It has been documented in Israel, India, Australia, and various places in Malaysia, plus the southeastern USA, in a population of wild dogs that have been disconnected for over 10,000 years.

So to propose that dog domestication stemmed from a single incident rather than multiple incidents worldwide is failing to look at the likelihood that the dog-human partnership is so natural and helpful; it is an eventual foregone conclusion.

Furthermore, among the wild purebred dog species who have occasionally adapted to the cohabitation with humans, various skills seem to be inherent; one such skill is an occasional natural inclination to work as a ‘livestock guardian,’ which requires a very complex set of abilities and instincts.  Individual dogs in India and Israel can be found guarding livestock. The act is well documented. The dogs can also perform other functions.

The InDog is nearly identical to the Canaan dog of Israel. They also very much resemble the Australian Dingo. The dogs and others that Rajashree Khalap has documented fill the function of a Livestock Guardian dog.


In Israel, the Canaan dogs also have been known to work with livestock